Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippines
Adair embarked elements of the Army's 158th Regimental Combat Team and after maneuvers at Japen Island on 2 January 1945 and refueling stop at Mios Woendi got underway for Lingayen Gulf on 4 Janurary. Although her formation's passage to northwestern Luzon was marked by frequent air alerts and at least one underwater sound contact, the transport and her ships experienced no actual
hostile action. Adair carried troops assigned to the Reinforcement Group and consequently, did not participate in the 9 Janurary initial assault.  She entered the gulf on the night of 10 and 11 Janurary, and Adair had completed unloading by nightfall. On her voyage from Lingayen Gulf back Leyte, she continued her charmed life through air attacks occurring sporadically. At Leyte, she embarked elements of the Army's 12th Cavalry Regiment for transportation to the Luzon campaign. On the return voyage, air attacks resumed.  Adair came through unscathed, but companion ship Shadwell (LSD-15) suffered a damaging kamikaze crash on the 24th that forced her to return to Leyte for repairs.  At Lingayen, Adair disembarked the cavalrymen and took casualties on board for the return voyage to Leyte.

Photos from the Adair - click for larger image

DOWN THE NETS
BOATS MANEUVER
SMOKE SCREEN IS LAYED OUT
BOATS HAVE LEFT FOR THE BEACH
WOUNDED BACK FROM THE BEACH
BURIEL AT SEA

 
Supplies are Landed
James Turnbull #4

African-American troops unloading an LCM (Landing Craft Mechanized). Supplies must come ashore in this manner until permanent docking facilities can be wrested from the enemy. It is backbreaking work at terrifically long hours and when the beach is under mortar or artillery fire can be very dangerous. The LCVP at the right was broached by the high waves and the coxswain is trying to get it righted before it is pounded to pieces.
 

Click on print to right 
for several historic images.


 See: War Maps

Lingayen Gulf Landing Artist Work
Oil on canvas, 1945 Gift of Abbott Laboratories 88-159-KE


Navy History 1945
Jan. 2, 1945, Headquarters of Fleet Air Wing 17, based on Tangier, directed patrol plane support of the Lingayen Gulf operations from San Pedro Bay.

(3 Jan) Invasion of Luzon, Southwest Pacific Force operations against Luzon were directly supported by Seventh Fleet escort carriers in Task Group 77.4 (Rear Admiral C. T. Durgin) and indirectly by the fast carriers in Task Force 38 (Vice Admiral J. S. McCain) of Third Fleet and Central Pacific Forces. Task Group 77.
(4 Jan) with 17 escort carriers, covered the approach of the Luzon Attack Force against serious enemy air opposition from Kamikaze pilots which sank Ommaney Bay, and damaged several ships including escort carriers Manila Bay and Savo Island 
(5 Jan). It conducted preliminary strikes in the assault area 
(7-9 Jan), covered the landings in Lingayen Gulf 
(9-17 Jan), and supported the inland advance of troops ashore . 



The invasion of Luzon was scheduled for January 9, 1945. The Luzon invasion resulted in a new first for Underwater Demolition. Captain Hall (Bull) Hanlon was assigned Commander of Underwater Demolition Teams. The Captain used the USS Gilmer, Team Five’s old “four stack” APD at Guam, as his flagship. In previous operations, UDT was quasi commanded by the ranking UDT team commander in the invasion plan. This was usually a Lieutenant Commander. Now UDT had more brass clout to coordinate bombardment needs, team assignments, and intelligence reporting. Six Underwater Demolition Teams were assigned to the Luzon operation. Those teams were Teams 5, 8, 9, 10, 14, and 15. We will review each team’s operations in order of their commission age beginning with Team 5.

Hollandia, New Guinia where they enjoyed some rest and recreation. In late December, the Team engaged in some advanced training. They were still assigned to the Humphreys, and on December 27 the Team joined the bombardment group for the invasion of Luzon. Moving north and west the enormous fleet passed near Leyte. And as they moved north from there, the Japanese started attacking with fighter and dive-bombers. The attack was almost continuous for the rest of the journey to Luzon. This was the first evidence in the research for this manuscript verifying the use of Kamikaze by the Japanese. Many ships were hit. The escort carrier, Ommaney Bay, was sunk and the Light cruiser USS Louisville was hit.

On January 7, 1945, the attack force moved into Lingayen Gulf on the West Coast of Luzon. Lingayen Gulf is over one hundred miles north of Manila. The big guns of the bombardment force immediately started sending salvo after salvo into the beach areas to be checked by the UDT Teams.



USS HASKELL APA-168 With words from a gunner's mate daughter.



USS DuPage (APA-41)
10 January 1945 - Action Report - Lingayen Gulf Operation in San Fabian Area 
3:30 Received Voice Transmission from CTG 78.1 addressed to all ships that the enemy was operating small craft in the area and using hand explosives against ships.  All Lookouts and Deck Watches were advised and ordered to keep a sharp look-out for small craft.  No enemy or other small craft were sighted in the vicinity. 
5:27 Sounded General Quarters, FLASH BLUE - CONTROL YELLOW. 
6:06 FLASH RED - CONTROL YELLOW. 
6:46 FLASH RED - CONTROL GREEN. 
6:59  Underway - shifted anchorage. 
7:39 FLASH WHITE - CONTROL GREEN. 
7:42 Anchored in Outer Transport Area, Latitude 16D-11.6' North, Longitude 120D-18.7' East. 
7:49 Secured General Quarters, Set Condition Three. 
9:50 One (1) Officer and twenty-five (25) hand working party sent to Beach White Two to help unload TransDiv24 boats. 
12:47 DD663 moored along side, Starboard side, to receive fuel and unload brass. 
14:13 Received voice transmission from CTG 78.1 addressed to all ships stating armed Japanese hiding under boxes and swimming towards ships.  All Lookouts were ordered to keep sharp lookout on all debris.  No enemy was sited. 
15:05 Beach  working party returned to ship. 
15:13 LCI 567 moored along side, Port side, to receive provisions, fog oil, and fresh water. 
16:25
 
 

 

DD663 cast off, having received 2031 barrels of fuel oil and unloaded eight hundred (800) rounds of 5"/38 and one thousand four hundred forty (1440) rounds of 40MM empty brass. 
17:30 LCI 567 cast off, having received four thousand two hundred (4200) pounds of dry provisions, two hundred seventy-five (275) gallons of fog oil and five thousand (5000) gallons fresh water.  LCI transported to beach fourteen (14) Army casualties treated and released by this ship. 
18:00 Underway to Sortie with ships departing Lingayen Gulf Area. 
18:11  Sounded General Quarters. 
18:41 Secured from General Quarters, Set Condition Three. 
19:02 Sounded General Quarters.  Enemy aircraft in vicinity. 
19:15
 
 
 

 

Observed enemy aircraft (Nick) approaching from dead ahead.  Opened fire with number 2, 4 and 10 20MM guns.  Hits were observed.  Port wing of place crashed into Port wing of Navigation Bridge.  Plane continued down Port side of ship causing material damage and starting fires on the Port Side from the Navigation Bridge to the fantail.  See Enclosure (C).  This vessel maintained per position as guide in cruising formation.  TBS was damaged and out of operation.  Ships location at time of plane crash was Latitude 16D-17' North.  Longitude 120D-15' East. 
19:18  Fires on Navigation Bridge extinguished. 
19:19  Unexploded bomb discovered on upper deck at frame 146, starboard , by 20MM clipping room. 
19:22  Unexploded bomb thrown over the side.  Deemed advisable due to nearby fires. 
19:23 Reported suicide crash to CTU 79 .14.2 over 608 Secondary Maneuvering Frequency also reporting that TBS was out of operation. 
19:33 Arrangements completed with CTU 79.14.2 to pass operational traffic to this vessel over channel Baker 5 (36.2 kilocycles).
19:37  All fires extinguished and under control. 
19:43 Sent voice radio message requesting all ships astern to keep lookout for men knocked overboard. 
20:10 Recurrent fires in Kapok Life Jackets stowed in boats on Port side also in Balsa wood life rafts, all fires were extinguished immediately.  LCC (21434) was flooded. 
20:20 TPS repaired and back in operation. 
23:30 Interpreted message from U.S.S. O'Brian reporting DuPage survivors had been picked up. 
23:42  CTD 24 (Temporary) aboard DuPage requested CTU 79.14.2 to provide medical assistance for this vessel. 
----------- As a result of enemy plane crash, thirty three (33) men were killed immediately and one hundred three (103) required and received immediate medical treatment.  Two (2) other wounded died before noon of 11 January 1945. 


Elmore APA-42
Returning to Manus and New Guinean ports, Elmore prepared for the northern Luzon assault. On 9 January 1945 she was in Lingayen Gulf for the initial landings. She remained to support the fighters ashore, and on 29 January landed troops without opposition near San Felipe. She returned to Leyte in February to be mother ship for the boat pool and to direct unloading of merchant ships.


U.S.S. Allen M. Sumner DD-692
10 January 1945.......... 0445 Jap torpedo boats reported in transport area. An LST and an AP were reported hit by torpedoes, and another ship hit by a charge thrown from a small boat. 0653 Enemy air attacks; heavy anti-aircraft fire and on enemy plane shot down. 0712 One Val sighted high overhead going into a dive. Commenced firing. Heavy anti-aircraft fire. Plane hit by heavy fire, tried to dive on a destroyer but missed and crashed into the water. 0714 Ceased firing. 1010 Two man midget submarine reported bearing 210° T., distant 5 miles. 1017 CONY reported having picked up two Japs in the water swimming with explosives strapped to their backs. Additional reports were received of enemy swimmers and a search was conducted of the area to westward by several destroyers. 1030 Ordered to fuel from MT. OLYMPUS. 1100 Attempted to go alongside MT. OLYMPUS but found process too treacherous due to heavy swell causing excessive roll. 1107 Left from alongside and proceeded on patrol in gulf as before. Having fueled from NEW MEXICO the previous day, sufficient fuel remained on hand to make return trip to Leyte without again refueling. 1400 WALKE and O’BRIEN fueled to 60% from AGC’s in transport area. 1600 Received orders to report to CDD120 doe escort of convoy departing at 1800. 1707 Observed anti-aircraft firing off port bow. 1735 Arrived at rendezvous point and circled awaiting convoy and escorts. 1800 Proceeded with O’BRIEN, WALKE, LANG, PEIFFER (DE), SOUTHARD (DMS), BLESSMAN (APD), and HMAS GASCOYNE to form circular screen around column of 5 APA’s leaving Lingayen transport area to join others departing San Fabian area. 1850 Screen formed; transports now 8 in number. 1902 Enemy planes overhead; observed anti-aircraft firing bearing 305° T., distant 6 miles. 1903 Commenced firing on Jap Val sighted to northeast. 1905 Ceased firing; observed plane to go into dive out of control and crash into water to northwest. 1915 Heavy anti-aircraft firing over ships within southern part of gulf and at mouth of gulf. 1919 DUPAGE of Task Group 79.14 observed hit by suicide plane to northwest. 1930 Preparing to join 3 columns of ships which comprise the remainder of the convoy. Task Unit 79.14.2 screen formed circle around all four columns. Convoy speed 12 knots. 1935 O’BRIEN sent astern to search for survivors of DUPAGE. 1944 Observed large explosion on horizon bearing 101° T. 2040 Passed out of Lingayen Gulf convoy of 17 APA’s, 2 AKA’s, 2 LSD’s and 1 KA formed in 4 columns with screen of 8 ships formed on circle 3 equally spaced; SUMNER on station #1. 2125 Changed screen to concentrate more ships forward for anti-submarine purposes. 2330 Passed Lingayen bound convoy.

11 January 1945......0128 LANG, SOUTHARD and 3 APA’s left convoy to return to Lingayen Gulf. 0130 Reformed screen to move stations #4 and #5 out to 4,000 yards circle. O’BRIEN was designated FD ship. Passed another Lingayen bound convoy. 0730 CAP overhead taken over by O’BRIEN. 0953 Convoy slowed to 5 knots to permit exchange of passengers between large ships. 1053 WALKE left station to investigate sound contact on starboard beam of convoy. 1100 WALKE reported good contact and dropped pattern of depth charges. 1105 WALKE made reattack dropping a second pattern. 1135 WALKE reported no further contact and proceeded to rejoin formation. 1635 Rounded Lubang Island, changed course to 147° T. 1826 CAP reported Jap plane in area. Enemy plane did not make appearance in vicinity of convoy. 2230 Contacted convoy bearing 125° T., distant 10 miles. 2319 Passed friendly convoy of LST’s and LCI’s abeam to port off central Mindoro.



WWII History In keeping with the plan, the U.S. Sixth Army made a massive amphibious assault on Luzon along the shores of the Lingayen Gulf on January 9, 1945. The Japanese commander, General Tomoyuki Yamashita, did not intend to defend the Central Plains-Manila Bay area, but sought only to pin down major elements of MacArthur's forces in order to delay Allied progress to Japan. Nevertheless, strong Japanese forces, primarily naval, disregarded Yamashita's plan and held out in Manila.


California National Guard
About 12,000 troops of the California National Guard were called to federal duty in 1940 and 1941. Most served in the Pacific area. The combat service of the 40th includes; Bismarck Archipelago Campaign, The Lingayen Gulf and Southern Philippines Campaign; assault Landings on Luzon and Panay were conducted. The division cleared the Negros Islands in April 1945 and was then sent to Korea where occupation duty was performed from September 1945 to March 1946.


U.S.S. NEW JERSEY (BB-62) Dec.30,1944 to Jan.25, 1945 she deployed with and provided the anti-aircraft screening for the carrier strikes on Formosa, Okinawa, and Luzon. Also the coast of Indo-China. Hong Kong, Swatow and Amoy. Then again back to Formosa and Okinawa.On Jan. 27,1945 Admiral Halsey lowered his Third Fleet flag on NEW JERSEY then on Jan.29th, Rear Admiral Oscar Badger Commander Battleship Division Seven raised his flag on NEW JERSEY. 



USS WAR HAWK AP 168
At about 1806, 8 January 1945, three enemy planes (Vals) attacked this
Task Unit (TU 79.4). CAP accounted for one plane; one plane crashed after being
hit; and the third made a suicide dive into the U.S.S. KITKUM BAY (CVE71).

Entering Transport Area 2, about 0700, 9 January 1945, one enemy plane
(Tony) attacked ships of Transport Group BAKER. Was damaged by gunfire and probably crashed.

Anchored in Berth 9, Transport Area 3, Lingayen Gulf, P. I.  At about
0410, 10 January 1945, a small boat was reported approaching the port side amidships.
Several boats were lying in the immediate area. The craft was driven against the
side of the ship abreast the machinery spaces. It was seen to back away and again
strike against the side forward of the machinery space abreast #3 hold. A violent
underwater explosion occurred. The craft was not seen to leave the ship. The ship
listed sharply to port and then righted. Ship's power and lighting failed. Power
and lighting circuits were restored at 0630. General quarters was passed and all
troops ordered topside. Damage control parties decended to lower 'tween decks,
hold #3, and brought casualties from the flooded hold. The public address system
and general alarm, powered from 15 KW emergency diesel generator, were put in com-
mission at 0420. At 0430, all trrops were mustered and twenty were unaccounted for.
Three Navy personnel were reported missing and not accounted for. At 0530, MONROVIA
and CAMBRIA damage control parties came aboard. At 0532, CAMBRIA medical pary came
aboard. At0610, LCI 7-- morred to starboard side and transferred to T500 gasoline
pumps. Damage control party came aboard from LCI7--. At 0638, USS CLAMP (ARS33),
moored to portside and damage control party came aboard. At 0640, sounded general
quarters to repel enemy air attack. At 0740, ATF 83, moored to starboard side and
salvage party came aboard. Boats from PA89, PA36, KA7 came alongside and commenced
disembarking troops. Completed unloading troops, with exception of ship's platoon
and vehicle drivers, at 0750.

At 0700, 10 January 1945, Task Unit was attacked by one enemy plane
(Zero). Plane was damaged by the U.S.S. ALCYONE and U.S.S. WAR HAWK and was seen
to crash.

At 0915, 12 January 1945, surprise enemy air attack by three Zekes.
Suicide attack against U.S.S WAR HAWK missed. Near miss on U.S.S. LST 700 result-
ing in seven wounded, no appreciable damage to ship. U.S.S. STAFFORD (DE411)
had fire when machine gun fire of nearby ship struck gasoline handy-billy. Third
plane attempted four dives on U.S.S. WAR HAWK, was damaged by CAP and was destroyed
by ship's fire.

At 0755, 13 January 1945, a single enemy plane (Oscar) made a near miss
suicide dive on the U.S.S. LST 700 resulting in three killed and two wounded. Com-
plete loss of power resulted and ship was taken in tow by the U.S.S. LST 268. Unit
proceeded to Mindoro Island leaving U.S.S. 700 there to effect repairs, and
continued to Dulag, Leyte, P. I. arriving at 1101, 16 January 1945.

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